The origin and development of photovoltaic power generation

As early as 1839, the French scientist Becqurel discovered that light can create a potential difference between different parts of a semiconductor material. This phenomenon was later called the "photovoltaic effect", referred to as the "photovoltaic effect."

Photovoltaic Power Generation In 3954, American scientists Chabbin and Pilson made a practical monocrystalline silicon solar cell for the first time at Bell Labs in the United States, and created a practical photovoltaic power generation technology that converts solar energy into electrical energy.

After the 1970s, with the development of modern industry, the global energy crisis and air pollution problems have become increasingly prominent. Traditional fuel energy is decreasing day by day, and the harm to the environment is becoming increasingly prominent. At the same time, about 2 billion people in the world are not getting Normal energy supply. At this time, the whole world has turned its attention to renewable energy. It is hoped that renewable energy can change the human energy structure and maintain long-term sustainable development. Among them, solar energy has become the focus of attention with its unique advantages. Abundant solar radiant energy is an important energy source, an inexhaustible, inefficient, non-polluting, cheap, and freely usable energy source. The energy of solar energy reaching the ground every second is as high as 800,000 kWh. If 0.1% of the solar energy on the earth's surface is converted into electric energy, the conversion rate is 5%, and the annual power generation can reach 5.6×1012 kWh, which is equivalent to 40% of the world's energy consumption. Times. It is precisely because of these unique advantages of solar energy that after the 1980s, the types of solar cells have been increasing, the scope of application has become increasingly broad, and the market scale has gradually expanded.

After the 1990s, photovoltaic power generation developed rapidly. By 2006, more than 10 megawatt-scale photovoltaic power generation systems and 6 megawatt-scale connected photovoltaic power plants have been built in the world. The United States was the first country to develop a development plan for photovoltaic power generation. In 1997, the “Million Roof” project was proposed. Japan launched the new sunshine program in 1992. By 2003, Japan's PV module production accounted for 50% of the world's total, and four of the world's top 10 manufacturers were in Japan. The German New Renewable Energy Law stipulates the on-grid price of photovoltaic power generation, which has greatly promoted the development of the photovoltaic market and industry, making Germany the fastest growing country in the world after Japan. Switzerland, France, Italy, Spain, Finland and other countries have also formulated photovoltaic development plans, and invested heavily in technology development and accelerated industrialization.

The average annual growth rate of the world's PV modules in 1990-2005 was about 15%. In the late 1990s, development was even faster. In 1999, PV module production reached 200 MW. Commercial battery efficiency has increased from 10% to 13% to 13% to 15%, production scale has grown from 1 to 5 MW/year to 5 to 25 MW/year, and is expanding to 50 MW or even 100 MW. The production cost of photovoltaic modules has dropped below $3/W.

The 2006 PV industry survey shows that by 2010, the annual growth rate of the photovoltaic industry will remain above 30%. Annual sales will increase from $7 billion in 2004 to $30 billion in 2010. Many established PV manufacturing companies have also turned from a loss to a profit.

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